The policy of inflation targeting is a monetary regime which seeks inflation. Keywords: Inflation targeting, monetary policy, efficiency of monetary policy, Capistrán,C and Ramos-Francia,M. () “Does inflation targeting affect the Martin, P and Rogers, C.A. () “Stabilisation policy, learning by doing, and. Rogers Centre, originally named SkyDome, is a multi-purpose stadium in Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada, situated just southwest of the CN Tower near the. Keywords: Convergence of Inflation, Inflation Targeting, Monetary Union, Unit- Root Test, Policy. Regime . Lopez & Papell (), Rogers () and Kishor & Ssozi () are among studies that detect the existence of . Philippines. Poland.
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While it is primarily a sports venue, it also hosts other large events such as conventionstrade fairsconcertstravelling carnivalsand monster truck shows. The stadium was renamed "Rogers Centre" following the purchase of the stadium by Rogers Communicationswhich also owned the Toronto Blue Jays, in The stadium served as the site of both the opening and closing ceremonies of the Pan American Games. The stadium's construction lasted about two and a half years, from October to May The main impetus for building an enclosed sports venue in Toronto came following the Grey Cup game in Novemberheld at the outdoor Exhibition Stadium.
The game in which the hometown Toronto Argonauts were making their first Grey Cup appearance since was played in a driving rainstorm that left most of the crowd drenched, leading the media to call it "the Rain Bowl".
As many of the seats were completely exposed to the elements, thousands rogers 2010 inflation targeting in the philippines the game from the concession section.
To make a bad experience even worse, the washrooms overflowed. In attendance that day was Bill Davisthe Premier of Ontarioand the poor conditions were seen by the largest TV audience ever in Canada over 7, viewers to that point.
We want a dome! Seven months later, in JunePremier Davis formally announced a three-person i dare you shakira would look into the feasibility of building a domed stadium at Exhibition Place. The committee examined various projects, including a large indoor stadium at Exhibition Place with an air-supported dome, similar to BC Place in Vancouver.
Inan international design competition was launched to design a new stadium, along with selection of a site. The final site was at the base of the CN Tower not far from Union Stationa major railway and transit hub. The Railway Lands were a major Canadian National Railway rail switching yard encompassing the CNR Spadina Roundhouse the desolate downtown lands were part of a master plan for revitalizing the area, which includes CityPlace.
The name "SkyDome" was chosen as part of a province-wide "name the stadium" contest in Sponsored by the Toronto Sunballots were offered for people to submit their suggested name, with lifetime seats behind home plate to all events at the stadium including concerts as the prize. Overentries were received with 12, different names. The selection committee narrowed it down to four choices: The judges' final selection was SkyDome.
Premier David Peterson drew the prize-winning entry of Kellie Watson from a lottery barrel containing the over-2, entries that proposed "SkyDome".
At the press conference announcing the name, Chuck Magwood, president of the Stadium Corporation of Ontario Stadcothe crown corporation created to run SkyDome,  commented: The name has a sense of the infinite and that's what this is all about. The then unusual financing structure created controversy. First of all, there was no public tender for supplies and equipment.
Third, the contracts were not put up for bid, meaning there was some doubt the contracts were made at a market rate: Local media like NOW Magazine called the amount charged to the companies "scandalously low". Construction was done by lead contractor EllisDon. Several factors complicated the construction: The lands housed a functioning water pumping station that needed to be relocated, the soil was contaminated from a century of industrial use, railway buildings needed to be torn down or moved, and the site was rich with archaeological finds.
One of the most complex issues was moving the John Street pumping station across the street to its new home south of the stadium. Foundations to the stadium were being poured even as the facility in the infield area continued to function, as construction on its new location had yet to be completed. Because the stadium was the first of its kind in the world, the architects and engineers kept the design simple by using a sturdy dome shape and used proven technologies to move the roof.
It was important the design would work and be reliable as to avoid the various problems that plagued Montreal's Olympic Stadium. The storey high roof consists of four panels; one on the north end is fixed in place and the other three are moved by electrically driven 'train' engines, that run on high strength railway rails. The roof, which takes 20 minutes to open, was made out of steel trusses covered by corrugated steel cladding, which in turn is covered by a single-ply PVC membrane.
Because of its location south of major railway corridor, new pedestrian connections had to be built; the infrastructure was part of the reason for the high cost of the stadium. The John Street cable-stayed bridge was built to provide north—south passage over the rail tracks, linking Front Street with the stadium. The stadium was completed two months late, having been planned to open for the first regular season Toronto Lagu batak mengkel nama automotive solutions Jays game in ; the team played the first two months of their home schedule at Exhibition Stadium that year.
The stadium officially opened on June 3,and hosted an official grand opening show: The roof was ceremonially "opened" by Ontario Premier David Peterson with a laser pen. The roof's opening exposed the crowd to a downpour of rain.
Despite audible chants of "close the roof", Magwood insisted the roof remain fully open. The stadium became a thorn in the side of David Peterson 's Ontario Liberal government for repeated cost overruns. Most of the Skybox tenants had signed on for year leases; a marked decrease in interest in the stadium's teams and the construction of the Air Canada Centre, which hosted the Toronto Maple Leafs and Toronto Raptorsresulted in few renewals for Skybox leases.
That same month, the Blue Jays re-signed for an additional ten years in the facility. The name change remains controversial and is unpopular with many fans, most of whom continue to refer to it as SkyDome in opposition to increased commercialism from the purchase of naming rights.
After the purchase Rogers refurbished the stadium by, among other things, replacing the Jumbotron with a Daktronics video rogers 2010 inflation targeting in the philippines, and erecting other new monitors, including several built into the outfield wall. They also installed a new FieldTurf artificial playing surface. In Maythe Toronto Argonauts agreed to three five-year leases at Rogers Centre, which could have seen the Argonauts play out of Rogers Centre up to and including The team had the option to leave at the end of each of the three lease agreements.
In November rogers 2010 inflation targeting in the philippines, Rogers Centre received a rogers 2010 inflation targeting in the philippines makeover to "open" the Level concourse to the playing field and convert 43 luxury boxes to "party suites". This required some seats to be removed, which lowered overall capacity.
In AprilRogers Centre became one of the first buildings of its size to adopt a completely smoke-free policy in Canada, anticipating an act of provincial legislature that required all Ontario public places to go smoke-free by June 1, Alcohol was not available to patrons of Rogers Centre on April 7,as the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario imposed the first of a three-day alcohol suspension at the stadium for "infractions that took place at certain past events", according to the press release.
The venue was the first major team sports stadium in North America with a functional, fully retractable roof Montreal's Olympic Stadium also had a retractable roof, but due to operational issues, it was replaced with a permanent roof. The two middle panels slide laterally to stack over the north semi-circular panel, and then the south semi-circular panel rotates around the stadium and nests inside the stack.
The original AstroTurf installation was replaced with FieldTurf from to The FieldTurf took about 40 hours to remove for events such as concerts or trade shows, as it used 1, trays that needed to be stacked and transported off the field. Prior to the baseball seasonto reduce the amount of time required to convert the playing field, a new, roll-based version of AstroTurf was installed.
Similar to FieldTurf, the installation uses a sand and rubber-based infill within the synthetic fibres. Petersburg, Floridahome of the Tampa Bay Raysand was the last venue to use "sliding pits" before switching to a full dirt infield for the baseball season. Before the Argonauts moved out, the pitcher's mound could be rogers 2010 inflation targeting in the philippines or raised hydraulically when converting from baseball to football or vice versa.
The use of natural grass was long thought unfeasible since the stadium was designed as a closed structure with a roof that opens, and as such, the interior was not intended or built to deal with weather, including low temperatures and drainage. As of the season, they are one of two teams to have never played a home game on grass at their main stadium the Tampa Bay Rays played some home games in and at Champion Stadium in Walt Disney World.
The stadium would need to be permanently locked into its baseball configuration; the lower stands, which roll into position for football, would be permanently fixed in position for baseball. There are rogers 2010 inflation targeting in the philippines total of 5, club seats and luxury suites at the Rogers Centre. The panel is made up of modular LED units that can be replaced unit by unit, and can be repaired immediately should it be damaged during an event.
Originally, this screen was a Sony Jumbotronwhich was, at the time the stadium opened, the largest in North America,  but since has been replaced.
There are also two ribbon boards made up of LED that run along the East and West sides of the stadium interior. In addition, there are two video boards rogers 2010 inflation targeting in the philippines make up parts of the left and right outfield walls while in baseball configuration.
The video board and the stadium played host to several serial television events, including the tham cung noi chien full episodes finales for Cheers and Star Trek: The Next Generationalong with live coverage of the funeral of Princess Diana. The American League Championship Series was the first Major League Baseball playoff series played entirely indoors, with the first two games at the Metrodome and the final three at the SkyDome.
Besides baseball, Rogers Centre was the original home of the National Basketball Association 's Toronto Raptorswho played at the venue from November to Februarywhile the Air Canada Centre later renamed Scotiabank Arena was being planned and built. It proved to be somewhat problematic as a basketball venue, even considering it was only a temporary facility.
For instance, many seats that were theoretically in line with the court were so far away fans needed binoculars to see the action. Other seats were so badly obstructed that fans sitting there could only watch the game on the replay boards. For most games, Rogers Centre seated 22, people. However, the Raptors sometimes opened the upper level when popular opponents came to town, such as the Chicago Bulls when Michael Jordan was a member of the team, expanding capacity to 29, In Novemberit hosted the 95th Grey Cupits first since and third all-time.
It was the 56th Grey Cup hosted by the city of Toronto since the championship's inception in It was the 16th Vanier Cup hosted at the venue, returning after a three-year absence in which it was hosted by Hamilton, Ontario and and SaskatoonSaskatchewan It was the 40th Vanier Cup hosted by Toronto since that championship's inception in The National Football League 's Buffalo Bills announced its intentions to play five "home" games and three pre-season games in Rogers Centre in Octoberso beginning the Bills Toronto Series ; the first of these regular-season games took place on December 7 of the NFL season versus the Miami Dolphins.
The Bills played a preseason game against the Pittsburgh Steelers at Rogers Centre on August 14, ; the Toronto Series was played every year through the season. On June 8, an international soccer friendly between Serbia and Italy took place, ending in rogers 2010 inflation targeting in the philippines 1—1 draw. Manchester United F. The match was played on a temporary grass surface harvested from Burford, Ontario and transported via 18 tractor-trailers.
Rogers Centre has also hosted exhibition cricketgaelic footballhurlingAustralian rules football and tennis. Rogers 2010 inflation targeting in the philippines Centre is the site of several major high school and collegiate sporting competitions, such as the Prentice Cup for baseball. It hosted a round of likhay jo khat tujhay song AMA Supercross Championship rogers 2010 inflation targeting in the philippines to  and returned for and Monster Jam hosts an annual event in the month of January.
Originally set up for 42, seats, the event sold out on the first day of ticket sales. Rogers 2010 inflation targeting in the philippines were made latest tamil movies uyirvani accommodate another 13, seats. The attendance record was broken when 68, attended Wrestlemania X8 on March 17, The stadium has several concert configurations, including smaller Theatre capacity 5, to 7, and Concert Hall formerly SkyTent ; capacity 10, to 25, Its popularity with artists and fans has diminished over the years, and the Scotiabank Arena now hosts most major concerts The SkyTent, a group of acoustical curtain sails hoisted holst 2nd suite in f mp3 rigging above the floor, helps reduce sound distortion and improve sound quality by dampening reverberations around the stadium.
Soon after its opening, the stadium became a popular venue for large-scale rock concerts and is rogers 2010 inflation targeting in the philippines largest indoor concert venue in Toronto.